Strategic Management

Part 1Introduction to Strategic Management1.1Overview
Chapter 1The Strategic Management Process1.2Strategic Planning
1.3A Basic Planning Model
1.4Mission and Major Goals
1.5External Analysis
1.6Internal Analysis
1.7Swot and Strategic Choice
1.8Strategy Implementation
1.9The feedback loop
Strategic Managers1.10Corporate-Level Managers
1.11Business-Level Managers
1.12Operations Managers
Strategic Leadership1.13Vision, Eloquence, and Consistency
1.15Being Well Informed
1.16Willingness to Delegate and Empower
1.17Astute Use of Power
1.18Emotional Intelligence
Strategy as an Emergent Process1.19Strategy Making in an Unpredictable World
1.20Strategy Making by Lower-Level Managers
1.21Serendipity and Strategy
1.22Intended and Emergent Strategies
Strategic Planning in Practice1.23Planning Under Uncertainty
1.24Scenario Planning
1.25Ivory Tower Planning
1.26Involving Operating Managers
1.27Procedural Justice
1.28Planning for the Present: Strategic Intent
Improving Strategic Decision Making1.29Cognitive Biases and Strategic Decisions
1.30Groupthink and Strategic Decisions
1.31Techniques for Improving Decision Making
Chapter 2 Stakeholders and the Corporate Mission2.1Overview
2.3The Mission Statement
2.4Vision or Mission
Corporate Governance and Strategy2.7The Corporate Governance Problem
2.8Corporate Governance Mechanisms
Strategy and Ethics2.9The Purpose of Business Ethics
2.10Shaping the Ethical Climate of an Organisation
2.11Thinking Through Ethical Problems
2.12Corporate Social Responsibility
Part 2 The Nature of Competitive advantage3.1Overview
Chapter 3 Identification of Industry Opportunities and Threats3.2Potential Competitors
Analysing Industry Structure3.3Rivalry Among Established Companies
3.4The Bargaining Power of Buyers
3.5The Bargaining Power of Suppliers
3.6Substitute Products
3.7A Sixth Force: Complementors
3.8Strategic Groups Within Industries
3.9The Concept of Strategic Groups
3.10Implications of Strategic Groups
Stakeholders and the Corporate Mission3.11Limitations of the Five Forces and Strategic Group Models
3.12Innovation and Industry Structure
3.13Industry Structure and Company Differences
Competitive Changes During an Industry's Evolution3.14Embryonic Industries
3.15Growth Industries
3.16Industry Shakeout
3.17Mature Industries
3.18Declining Industries
3.19Variations on the Theme
3.20Network Economics as a Determinant of Industry Conditions
Globalisation and Industry Structure3.21The Nation-State and Competitive Advantage
3.22Factor Endowments
3.23Local Demand Conditions
3.24Competitiveness of Related and Supporting Industries
3.25Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry
Chapter 4 Resources, Capabilities, Competencies4.1Competitive Advantage: Value Creation, Low Cost, and Differentiation
4.2The Generic Building Blocks of Competitive Advantage
4.6Customer Responsiveness
The Value Chain, and Value Creation4.7Primary Activities
4.8Support Activities
4.9Cross-Functional Goals
Distinctive Competencies4.10Resources and Capabilities
4.11Strategy and Competitive Advantage
4.12The Role of Luck
The Durability of Competitive Advantage4.13Barriers to Imitation
4.14Imitating Resources
4.15Imitating Capabilities
4.16Capability of Competitors
4.17Industry Dynamism
4.18Why Do Companies Fail?
4.20Prior Strategic Commitments
4.21The Icarus Paradox
Sustaining Competitive Advantage4.22Focus on the Building Blocks of Competitive Advantage
4.23Institute Continuous Improvement and Learning
4.24Track Best Industrial Practice and Use Benchmarking
4.25Overcome Inertia
Part 3 Strategies5.1Overview
Chapter 5 Building Competitive Advantage5.2Production and Efficiency: Economies of Scale
Achieving Superior Efficiency5.3Production and Efficiency: Learning Effects
5.4Production and Efficiency: The Experience Curve
5.5Production and Efficiency: Flexible Manufacturing and Mass Customisation
5.6Marketing and Efficiency
5.7Materials Management, JIT, and Efficiency
5.8R&D Strategy and Efficiency
5.9Human Resource Strategy and Efficiency
5.10Employee Training
5.11Self-Managing Teams
5.12Information Systems, the Internet, and Efficiency
5.13Infrastructure and Efficiency
Achieving Superior Quality5.14The TQM Concept and Implementation
5.15Build Organisational Commitment to Quality
5.16Focus on the Customer
5.17Find Ways to Measure Quality
5.18Set Goals and Create Incentives
5.19Solicit Input from Employees
5.20Identify Defects and Trace Them to the Source
5.21Build Relationship with Suppliers
5.22Design for Ease of Manufacture
5.23Break Down Barriers Between Functions
Achieving Superior Innovation5.24The High Failure Rate of Innovation
5.25Building Competencies in Innovation
5.26Achieving Superior Customer Responsiveness
Customer Focus5.27Leadership
5.28Employee Attitudes
5.29Bringing Customers into the Company
Satisfying Customer Needs5.30Customisation
5.31Response Time
Chapter 6 Business-Level Strategy6.1Overview
What Is Business-Level Strategy?6.2Customers' Needs and Product Differentiation
6.3Customer Groups and Market Segmentation
6.4Distinctive Competencies
Choosing a Generic Business-Level Strategy6.5Cost-Leadership Strategy
6.6Differentiation Strategy
6.7Cost Leadership and Differentiation
6.8Focus Strategy
Strategic Groups and Business-Level Strategy6.9Stuck in the Middle
Investment Strategy at the Business Level6.10Competitive Position
6.11Life Cycle Effects
6.12Choosing an Investment Strategy
Chapter 7 Competitive Strategy and the Industry Environment7.1Overview
Strategies in Fragmented Industries7.2Strategies in Embryonic and Growth Industries
7.3Strategy in Mature Industries
7.4Strategies to Deter Entry in Mature Industries
7.5Strategies to Manage Rivalry in Mature Industries
7.6Price Signalling
7.7Price Leadership
7.8Non-Price Competition
Supply and Distribution Strategy in Mature Industries7.9Capacity Control
Strategies in Declining Industries7.10The Severity of Decline
7.11Choosing a Strategy
Chapter 8 Strategy in the Global Environment8.1Overview
Profiting from Global Expansion8.2Transferring Distinctive Competencies
8.3Realising Location Economies
8.4Moving Down the Experience Curve
Cost Reductions and Local Responsiveness8.5Global Expansion and Business-Level Strategy
8.6Pressure for Cost Reductions
Strategic Choice8.7Pressures for Local Responsiveness
8.8International Strategy
8.9Multi-domestic Strategy
8.10Global Strategy
Basic Entry Decisions8.11Transnational Strategy
8.12Which Foreign Markets?
8.13Timing of Entry
The Choice of Entry Mode8.14Scale of Entry and Strategic Commitments
8.18Joint Ventures
8.19Wholly Owned Subsidiaries
Global Strategic Alliances8.20Choosing Among Entry Modes
8.21Advantages of Strategic Alliances
8.22Disadvantages of Strategic Alliances
8.23Making Strategic Alliances Work
8.24Partner Selection
8.25Alliance Structure
8.26Managing the Alliance
Chapter 9 Diversification, and Strategic Alliances9.1Overview
Concentration on a Single Business9.2Creating Value Through Vertical Integration
Vertical Integration9.3Arguments Against Vertical Integration
9.4Bureaucratic Costs and the Limits of Vertical Integration
Cooperative Relationships and Outsourcing9.5Short-Term Contracts and Competitive Bidding
9.6Strategic Alliances and Long-Term Contracting
9.7Building Long-Term Cooperative Relationships
9.8Strategic Outsourcing and the Virtual Corporation
Diversification9.9Creating Value Through Diversification
Bureaucratic Costs and the Limits of Diversification9.10Diversification That Dissipates Value
9.11Related Versus Unrelated Diversification
9.12Strategic Alliances as an Alternative to Diversification
Chapter 10 Building and Restructuring the Corporation10.1Overview
Reviewing the Corporate Portfolio10.2Portfolio Planning
10.3Limitations of Portfolio Planning
10.4The Corporation as a Portfolio of Core Competencies
10.5Entry Strategy
Internal New Venturing10.6Attractions of Internal New Venturing
10.7Pitfalls of Internal New Venturing
10.8Guidelines for Successful New Venturing
Acquisitions as an Entry Strategy10.9Attractions of Acquisitions
10.10Pitfalls of Acquisitions
10.11Guidelines for Successful Acquisition
Joint Ventures as an Entry Strategy10.12Attractions of Joint Ventures
10.13Drawbacks of Joint Ventures
Restructuring10.14Why Restructure?
10.15Exit Strategies
Turnaround Strategy10.16The Causes of Corporate Decline
10.17The Main Steps of Turnaround
Part 4 Implementing Strategic Change11.1Building Blocks of Organisational Structure
Chapter 11Designing Organisational Structure11.2Differentiation, Integration, and Bureaucratic Costs
The Role of Organisational Structure11.3Problems with Tall Structures
Vertical Differentiation11.4Centralisation or Decentralisation?
11.5Simple Structure
Horizontal Differentiation11.6Functional Structure
11.7Advantages of a Functional Structure
11.8Disadvantages of a Functional Structure
Multidivisional Structure11.9Advantages of a Multidivisional Structure
Disadvantages of a Multidivisional Structure11.10Matrix Structure
11.11Product-Team Structure
11.12Geographic Structure
Integration and Integrating Mechanisms11.13Forms of Integrating Mechanisms
Integration and Control11.14Information Systems and Organisational Structure
Chapter 12 Designing Strategic Control Systems12.1Overview
What Is Strategic Control?12.2The Importance of Strategic Control
12.3A Balanced Scorecard Approach to Strategic Control
Strategic Control Systems12.4Levels of Strategic Control
12.5Financial Controls
12.6Output Controls
12.7Management by Objectives
12.8Behaviour Controls
Organisational Culture12.9What Is Organisational Culture?
12.10Culture and Strategic Leadership
Adaptive and Inert Cultures12.11The Composition of the Top-Management Team
12.12Traits of Strong and Adaptive Corporate Cultures
Strategic Reward Systems12.13Individual Reward Systems
12.14Group and Organisational Reward Systems
Chapter 13 Matching Structure and Control to Strategy13.1Overview
Structure and Control at the Functional Level13.2Manufacturing
13.3Research and Development
Structure and Control at the Business Level13.5Generic Business-Level Strategies
13.6Cost-Leadership Strategy and Structure
13.7Differentiation Strategy and Structure
13.8Implementing a Combined Differentiation and Cost-Leadership Strategy
13.9Focus Strategy and Structure
Designing a Global Structure13.10Multi-domestic Strategy and Structure
13.11International Strategy and Structure
Transnational Strategy and Structure13.12Global Strategy and Structure
Control at the Corporate Level13.13Unrelated Diversification
13.14Vertical Integration
Special Issues in Strategy-Structure Choice13.15Related Diversification
13.16Mergers, Acquisitions, and Structure
13.17Internal New Ventures and Structure
13.18Network Structure and Virtual Organisation
Chapter 14Implementing Strategic Change14.1Overview
Strategic Change14.2Reengineering and E-Engineering
Determining the Need for Change14.4Innovation
Determining the Obstacles to Change14.5Types of Obstacles to Change
14.6Organisational Conflict: An Important Obstacle to Change
The Role of Organisational Politics14.7Sources of Organisational Politics
14.8Legitimate Power and Politics
14.9Informal Sources of Power and Politics
14.10Control over Resources
Managing and Evaluating Change14.11Effects of Power and Politics on Strategic Change